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Publication List

PUBLICATION LIST: Dr Kevin M. Ryan

ISI Listed Journal Publications

  1. Kennedy , T., Brandon, M., Ryan, K. M. Advances in Application of Si and Ge Nanowires for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries. Advanced Materials, 28, 5696-5704, (2016)
  2.  Flynn, G., Ramasse, Q. M., Ryan, K. M. Solvent Vapor Growth of Axial Heterostructure Nanowires with Multiple Alternating Segments of Silicon and Germanium. Nano Letters, 16, 374-380 (2016)
  3. Singh, S., Brandon, M., Liu, P., Ryan, K. M. Selective Phase Transformation of Wurtzite Cu2ZnSn(SSe)(4) (CZTSSe) Nanocrystals into Zinc-Blende and Kesterite Phases by Solution and Solid State Transformations. Chemistry of Materials, 28, 5055-5062, (2016).*
  4. Liu, P., Singh, S., Bree, G., Ryan, K. M. Complete assembly of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanorods at substrate interfaces using a combination of self and directed organization. Chemical Communications, 52, 11587-11590, (2016)
  5. Wang, J., Ryan, K. M. Colloidal synthesis of Cu2SnSe3 nanocrystals with structure induced shape evolution. CrystEngComm, 18, 3161-3169, (2016)
  6. Wang, J. Liu, P. Ryan, K. M. Facile phosphine-free colloidal synthesis of Cu2SnS3 and Cu2ZnSnS4 nanorods with controllable aspect ratio Chemical Communications, 51, 13810-13813, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C5CC04979 PDF
  7. BS Singh, P Liu, A Singh, C Coughlan, J Wang, M Lusi, KM Ryan Colloidal Cu2ZnSn (SSe) 4 (CZTSSe) Nanocrystals-Shape and Crystal Phase control to form Dots, Arrows, Ellipsoids and Rods Chemistry of Materials (2015) Chem. Mater., Article ASAPDOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b01399
  8. Gill, E., Liu, P. Ryan, K. M. Insights into the Electrophoretic Deposition of Colloidal II-VI Nanorods: Optimization for Vertically and Horizontally Aligned Assemblies doi: 10.1149/2.0131511jes J. Electrochem. Soc. 2015 volume 162, issue 11, D3019-D3024
  9. T Kennedy, M Bezuidenhout, K Palaniappan, K Stokes, M Brandon, Ryan, K. M. Nanowire Heterostructures Comprising Germanium Stems and Silicon Branches as High-Capacity Li-Ion Anodes with Tunable Rate Capability ACS Nano 2015 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b02528M
  10. Bezuidenhout, T Kennedy, S Belochapkine, Y Guo, E Mullane, PA Kiely, Ryan, K. M. High density and patternable growth of silicon, germanium and alloyed SiGe nanowires by a rapid anneal protocol Journal of Materials Chemistry C 3 (28), 7455-7462
  11. C Coughlan, KM Ryan Complete study of the composition and shape evolution in the synthesis of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) semiconductor nanocrystals CrystEngComm.
  12. Singh, A. Coughlan, C., Milliron, D. J., Ryan, K. M. Solution Synthesis and Assembly of Wurtzite-Derived Cu-In-Zn-S Nanorods with tunable composition and Band Gap, Chemistry of Materials, 27, 1517-1523, (2015)
  13. Mullane, E. Geaney, H. Ryan, K. M. Synthesis of silicon-germanium axial nanowire heterostructures in a solvent vapour growth system using indium and tin catalysts. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 17, 6919, (2015)
  14. Bulushev, DA, Bulusheva, LG, Beloshapkin, O’Connor, T, Okotrub, AV, Ryan, K.M Pd Clusters Supported on Amorphous, Low-Porosity Carbon Spheres for Hydrogen Production from Formic Acid, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 7, 8719, (2015)
  15. Mullane, E., Kennedy, T., Geaney, H., Ryan, K. M. A Rapid, Solvent-Free Protocol for the Synthesis of Germanium Nanowire  Lithium-Ion Anodes with a Long Cycle Life and High Rate Capability, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 6, 18800-18807, (2014)  PDF
  16. Bezuidenhout, M., Liu, P., Singh, S., Kiely, M. Ryan, K. M. Kiely, P., Promoting
    cell proliferation using water dispersible germanium nanowires, PloS one, 9, e108006, 2014. PDF
  17. Mainz, R., Singh, A., Levcenko, S., Klaus, M. Genzel, C. Ryan, K. M. Unold, T. Phase-transition-driven growth of compound semiconductor crystals from ordered metastable nanorods, Nature Communications, 5, 3133, 2014.  PDF
  18.  Ryan, Kevin M.; Singh, Shalini; Liu, Pai, Singh, A., Assembly of binary, ternary and quaternary compound semiconductor nanorods: From local to device scale ordering influenced by surface charge Crystengcomm 16, 9446-9454, 2014. PDF
  19. Wang, J., Liu, P., Seaton, C., Ryan, K. M.Complete Colloidal Synthesis of Cu2SnSe3 Nanocrystals with Crystal Phase and Shape Control  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 7954−7960  PDF
  20. Kennedy, T., Mullane, E., Geaney, H., Osiak, M., O’Dwyer, C. Ryan, K. M. High-Performance Germanium Nanowire-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes Extending over 1000 Cycles Through in Situ Formation of a Continuous Porous Network. Nano Lett., 2014, 14 (2), pp 716–723  PDF
  21. Singh, S.   Singh, A.   Palaniappanan, K.  Ryan, K. M. Colloidal synthesis of homogeneously alloyed CdSexS1−x nanorods with compositionally tunable      photoluminescence Chem. Commun.49, 10293-10295 (2013) PDF
  22. Singh, A., Singh, S., Levcenko, S., Unold, T., Laffir, F., Ryan, K. M. Compositionally Tunable Photoluminescence Emission in Cu2ZnSn(S1−xSex)4 Nanocrystals,  Angewandte Chemie International Edition  52,  pages 9120–9124, (2013) PDF
  23. Wang, J. Singh, A., Liu, P. Singh, S. Coughlan, C. Guo, Y.  Ryan, K. M.  Colloidal Synthesis of Cu2SnSe3  Tetrapod Nanocrystals Journal of the American Chemical Society , 135, 7835-7838, (2013) PDF
  24. Geaney, H. Mullane, E. Ryan, K. M. Solution phase synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires J. Mater. Chem. C,1, 4996-5007 (2013) PDF
  25. Osiak, M., Armstrong, E., Kennedy, T., Torres, C. M. S., Ryan, K. M., O’Dwyer, C. Core-shell tin oxide, indium oxide, and indium tin oxide nanoparticles on silicon with tunable dispersion: Electrochemical and structural characteristics as a hybrid Li-ion battery anode. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5, 8195-8202 (2013).PDF
  26. Singh, A. Ryan, K. M.  Crystallization of Semiconductor Nanorods into Perfectly Faceted Hexagonal Superstructures     Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 30, pp 624–629, (2013), DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201300008 PDF
  27. Geaney, H., Mullane, E. Ramasse, Q. M. and Ryan, K. M.  Atomically Abrupt Silicon–Germanium Axial Heterostructure Nanowires Synthesized in a Solvent Vapor Growth System Nano Letters.,  13 (4), pp 1675–1680, (2013) PDF
  28. Coughlan, C., Singh, A., Ryan, K. M. ‘Systematic Study into the Synthesis and Shape Development in Colloidal CuInxGa1-xS2 Nanocrystals’ Chem. Mater, 25 (5), pp 653–661 (2013) PDF
  29. Bala, T,Singh, A,Sanyal, A,O’Sullivan, C,Laffir, F,Coughlan, C,Ryan, KM  ‘Fabrication of Noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanostructures using phase transfer’. Nano Research, 6 :121-130. (2013) PDF
  30. Singh, A., English, N. J., Ryan, K. M. Highly ordered nanorod assemblies extending over device scale areas and in controlled multilayers by electrophoretic deposition, Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 117, 1608-1615, (2013) PDF
  31. Osiak, M. Khunsin, W., Armstrong, E., Kennedy, T., Torres, C. M. S., Ryan, K. M., O’Dwyer, C. Epitaxial growth of visible to infra-red transparent conducting In2O3 nanodot dispersions and reversible charge storage as a Li-ion battery anode, Nanotechnology, 24, 065401, (2013) PDF
  32. Geaney, H., Dickinson, C., O’Dwyer, C., Mullane, E., Singh, A., Ryan, K. M. Growth of Crystalline Copper Silicide Nanowires in High Yield within a High Boiling Point Solvent System, Chemistry of Materials, 24, 4319-4325, (2012) PDF
  33. Singh, A. Coughlan, C. Laffir, F. R. Ryan, K. M. Assembly of CuIn1-xGaxS2 Nanorods into Highly Ordered 2D and 3D Superstructures ACS NANO. 6, 6977-6983, (2012) PDF
  34. Singh, A. Dickinson, C. Ryan, K. M. Insight into the 3D Architecture and Quasicrystal Symmetry of Multilayer Nanorod Assemblies from Moire Interference Patterns ACS NANO,  pp  3339-3345 (2012) PDF
  35. Mullane, E. Geaney, H. and Kevin M. Ryan Size controlled growth of germanium nanorods and nanowires by solution pyrolysis directly on a substrate Chemical Communications., ,48, 5446-5448 (2012)PDF
  36. Geaney, H. Kennedy, T. Dickinson, C. Mullane, E. Singh, A.  Laffir, F.and Ryan , K. M. High Density Growth of Indium seeded Silicon Nanowires in the Vapor phase of a High Boiling Point Solvent Chemistry of Materials., 24, pp 2204–2210, 2012,PDF
  37. Singh, A. Geaney, H. Laffir, F. R. Ryan, K. M. Colloidal Synthesis of Wurtzite Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanorods and their perpendicular Assembly Journal of the American Chemical Society. , 134, 2910−2913 (2012)PDF
  38. Singh, A. Gunning, R. D. Ahmed, S. Barrett, C. A.. English, N. J., Garate, J-A. and Ryan, K. M.  Controlled semiconductor nanorod assembly from solution: influence of concentration, charge and solvent nature Journal of Materials Chemistry, , 22, 1562-1569 (2012)PDF
  39. Geaney, H. Dickinson, C. Barrett, C. A. Ryan, K. M. High density germanium nanowire growth directly from copper foil by self-induced solid seeding, Chemistry of Materials, 23, 4838-4843, (2011)PDF
  40. Kelly, D., Singh, A., Barrett, C. A., O’Sullivan, C. Coughlan, C. Laffir, F. R., O’Dwyer, C. Ryan, K. M. A Facile spin-cast route for cation exchange of multilayer perpendicularly-aligned nanorod assemblies, Nanoscale, 3, 4580-4583, (2011)PDF
  41. Garate, J-A., English, N. J. Singh, A. Ryan, K. M. Mooney, D. A. and MacElroy, J. M. D. Electrophoretic Deposition of Poly(3-decylthiophene) onto Gold-Mounted Cadmium Selenide Nanorods. Langmuir  27, 13506-13513 (2011)PDF
  42. Barrett, C. A., Singh, A., Murphy, J. A., O’Sullivan, C., Buckley, D. N. & Ryan, K. M. Complete Synthesis of Germanium Nanocrystal Encrusted Carbon Colloids in Supercritical CO(2) and their Superhydrophobic Properties. Langmuir 27, 11166-11173, doi:10.1021/la2020868 (2011).PDF
  43. Godsell, J. F. Bala, T., Ryan, K.. M. Roy, S. An ac susceptibility study in capped Ni/Ni(OH)(2) core-shell nanoassemblies: dual peak observations.  Journal of Physics D-Applied Physics  44, 325004  (2011)  doi: 10.1088/0022-3727/44/32/325004PDF
  44. Geaney, H.; Dickinson, C.; Weng, W.; Kiely, C. J.; Barrett, C. A.; Gunning, R. D.; Ryan, K. M. The Role of Defects and Growth Directions in the Formation of Periodically Twinned and Kinked Unseeded Germanium Nanowires.Crystal Growth & Design, 11, 3266-3272, (2011) PDF
  45. Bala, T. O’Sullivan, C. Singh, A. Ryan K. M. Silver tip formation on colloidal CdSe nanorods by a facile phase transfer protocol. Journal of Materials Chemistry 21, 6815-6820, doi: 10.1039/C0JM04324A,  (2011).PDF
  46. Barrett, CA; Geaney, H; Gunning, RD; Ryan, K. M. Perpendicular growth of catalyst-free germanium nanowire arrays, Chemical Communications, 47 (13): 3843-3845, doi: 10.1039/c0cc05202g (2011) PDF UL Open Access
  47. O’Sullivan, S. Crilly, S. Laffir, F. R. Singh, A. Magner, E. & Ryan, K. M. Protein immobilisation on perpendicularly aligned gold tipped nanorod assemblies, Chemical Communications, 47, 2655-2657, doi: 10.1039/c0cc05182a (2011).                                               PDFUL Open Access
  48. Singh, A., Gunning, R. D., Sanyal, A. &    Ryan, K. M. Directing semiconductor nanorod assembly into 1D or 2D supercrystals by altering the surface charge. Chemical Communications 46, 7193-7195, doi:10.1039/c0cc01455a (2010).                                           PDFUL Open Access
  49. O’Sullivan, C., Gunning, R. D., Barrett, C. A., Singh, A. &    Ryan, K. M. Size controlled gold tip growth onto II-VI nanorods. Journal of Materials Chemistry 20, 7875-7880, doi:10.1039/c0jm01689f (2010).PDF UL Open Access
  50. Gunning, R. D., O’Sullivan, C. &    Ryan, K. M. A multi-rate kinetic model for spontaneous oriented attachment of CdS nanorods. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 12, 12430-12435, doi:10.1039/c0cp00196a (2010).PDF UL Open Access
  51. Gandhi, A. A., Gunning, R. D.,    Ryan, K. M. & Tofail, S. A. M. The Role of Texturing and Densification on Optical Transmittance of Hydroxyapatite Ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramic Society 93, 3773-3777, doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2010.03925.x (2010).PDF
  52. Barrett, C. A., Gunning, R. D., Hantschel, T., Arstila, K., O’Sullivan, C., Geaney, H. &    Ryan, K. M. Metal surface nucleated supercritical fluid-solid-solid growth of Si and Ge/SiOx core-shell nanowires. Journal of Materials Chemistry 20, 135-144, doi:10.1039/b914950c (2010).PDF
  53. Sanyal, A., Bala, T., Ahmed, S., Singh, A., Piterina, A. V., McGloughlin, T. M., Laffir, F. R. &    Ryan, K. M. Water dispersible semiconductor nanorod assemblies via a facile phase transfer and their application as fluorescent biomarkers. Journal of Materials Chemistry 19, 8974-8981, doi:10.1039/b913476j (2009).PDF
  54. O’Sullivan, C., Gunning, R. D., Sanyal, A., Barrett, C. A., Geaney, H., Loafer, F. R., Ahmed, S. &    Ryan, K. M. Spontaneous Room Temperature Elongation of CdS and Ag2S Nanorods via Oriented Attachment. Journal of the American Chemical Society 131, 12250-12257, doi:10.1021/ja902860t (2009).PDF
  55. Barrett, C. A., Dickinson, C., Ahmed, S., Hantschel, T., Arstila, K. &    Ryan, K. M. The evolution of pseudo-spherical silicon nanocrystals to tetrahedra, mediated by phosphonic acid surfactants. Nanotechnology 20, doi:27560510.1088/0957-4484/20/27/275605 (2009).PDF
  56. Bala, T., Gunning, R. D., Venkatesan, M., Godsell, J. F., Roy, S. &    Ryan, K. M. Block copolymer mediated stabilization of sub-5 nm superparamagnetic nickel nanoparticles in an aqueous medium. Nanotechnology 20, doi:41560310.1088/0957-4484/20/41/415603 (2009).PDF
  57. Ahmed, S. &    Ryan, K. M. Centimetre scale assembly of vertically aligned and close packed semiconductor nanorods from solution. Chemical Communications, 6421-6423, doi:10.1039/b914478a (2009).PDF
  58. O’Sullivan, C., Ahmed, S. &    Ryan, K. M. Gold tip formation on perpendicularly aligned semiconductor nanorod assemblies. Journal of Materials Chemistry 18, 5218-5222, doi:10.1039/b810543j (2008).PDF
  59. Ahmed, S. &    Ryan, K. M. Close-Packed Gold-Nanocrystal Assemblies Deposited with Complete Selectivity into Lithographic Trenches. Advanced Materials 20, 4745-+, doi:10.1002/adma.200801007 (2008).PDF
  60. Ahmed, S. &    Ryan, K. M. Self-assembly of vertically aligned nanorod supercrystals using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Nano Letters 7, 2480-2485, doi:10.1021/nl071263v (2007).PDF
  61. Ryan, K. M., Mastroianni, A., Stancil, K. A., Liu, H. T. & Alivisatos, A. P. Electric-field-assisted assembly of perpendicularly oriented nanorod superlattices. Nano Letters 6, 1479-1482, doi:10.1021/nl060866o (2006). PDF
  62.  Ryan, K. M., Lyons, D. M., Holmes, J. D., Farrell, R., Brennan, E. & Morris, M. A. in Nanoporous Materials Iv Vol. 156 Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis (eds A. Sayari & M. Jaroniec)  303-314 (2005). PDF
  63. Pursiainen, O. L. J., Baumberg, J. J., Ryan, K., Bauer, J., Winkler, H., Viel, B. & Ruhl, T. Compact strain-sensitive flexible photonic crystals for sensors. Applied Physics Letters 87, doi:10190210.1063/1.2032590 (2005). PDF
  64. Hant, S. M., Attard, G. S., Riddle, R. &    Ryan, K. M. Periodic binary Si : Ti, Si : Al mixed macroporous oxides with ultrahigh heteroatom loading: A facile sol-gel approach. Chemistry of Materials 17, 1434-1440, doi:10.1021/cm0482582 (2005).PDF
  65. Ziegler, K. J., Polyakov, B., Kulkarni, J. S., Crowley, T. A.,    Ryan, K. M., Morris, M. A., Erts, D. & Holmes, J. D. Conductive films of ordered nanowire arrays. Journal of Materials Chemistry 14, 585-589, doi:10.1039/b311585b (2004). PDF
  66. Ziegler, K.,    Ryan, K. M., Rice, R., Crowley, T., Erts, D., Olin, H., Patterson, J., Spalding, T. R., Holmes, J. D. & Morris, M. A. The synthesis of matrices of embedded semiconducting nanowires. Faraday Discussions 125, 311-326, doi:10.1039/b305156k (2004).PDF
  67. Hanrahan, J. P., Copley, M. P.,    Ryan, K. M., Spalding, T. R., Morris, M. A. & Holmes, J. D. Pore expansion in mesoporous silicas using supercritical carbon dioxide. Chemistry of Materials 16, 424-427, doi:10.1021/cm034882n (2004).
  68. Ziegler, K. J., Harrington, P. A.,    Ryan, K. M., Crowley, T., Holmes, J. D. & Morris, M. A. Supercritical fluid preparation of copper nanotubes and nanowires using mesoporous templates. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter 15, 8303-8314 (2003). PDF
  69. Ryan, K. M., McGrath, J. P., Farrell, R. A., O’Neill, W. M., Barnes, C. J. & Morris, M. A. Measurements of the lattice constant of ceria when doped with lanthana and praseodymia – the possibility of local defect ordering and the observation of extensive phase separation. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter 15, L49-L58 (2003). PDF
  70. Ryan, K. M., Erts, D., Olin, H., Morris, M. A. & Holmes, J. D. Three dimensional architectures of ultra-high density semiconducting nanowires deposited on chip. Journal of the American Chemical Society 125, 6284-6288, doi:10.1021/ja0345064 (2003).PDF
  71. Ryan, K. M., Coleman, N. R. B., Lyons, D. M., Hanrahan, J. P., Spalding, T. R., Morris, M. A., Steytler, D. C., Heenan, R. K. & Holmes, J. D. Control of pore morphology in mesoporous silicas synthesized from triblock copolymer templates. Langmuir 18, 4996-5001, doi:10.1021/la025606a (2002). PDF
  72. Lyons, D. M.,    Ryan, K. M., Morris, M. A. & Holmes, J. D. Tailoring the optical properties of silicon nanowire arrays through strain. Nano Letters 2, 811-816, doi:10.1021/nl0256098 (2002). PDF
  73. Lyons, D. M.,    Ryan, K. M. & Morris, M. A. Preparation of ordered mesoporous ceria with enhanced thermal stability. Journal of Materials Chemistry 12, 1207-1212, doi:10.1039/b104677m (2002).PDF
  74. Holmes, J. D., Spalding, T. R.,    Ryan, K. M., Lyons, D., Crowley, T. & Morris, M. A. in Nanoporous Materials Iii Vol. 141 Perspectives in Analytical Philosophy (eds A. Sayari & M. Jaroniec)  337-344 (2002).
  75. Coleman, N. R. B.,    Ryan, K. M., Spalding, T. R., Holmes, J. D. & Morris, M. A. The formation of dimensionally ordered germanium nanowires within mesoporous silica. Chemical Physics Letters 343, 1-6 (2001). PDF
  76. Coleman, N. R. B., O’Sullivan, N.,    Ryan, K. M., Crowley, T. A., Morris, M. A., Spalding, T. R., Steytler, D. C. & Holmes, J. D. Synthesis and characterization of dimensionally ordered semiconductor nanowires within mesoporous silica. Journal of the American Chemical Society 123, 7010-7016, doi:10.1021/ja015833j (2001). PDF

  Book Chapter

  1. Holmes, J. D., Morris, M. A. &   Ryan, K. M. Macroporous materials as templates for semiconductor nanowire assembly book chapter in Self Assembly (ed. Robinson, B. H.) 175-183 (IOS Press, Amsterdam, 2003).

   SULIS Publicaitons

  1. Ahmed, S.; Barrett, C. A.; O’Sullivan, C.; Sanyal, A.; Geaney, H.; Singh, A.; Gunning, R. D.;    Ryan, K. M., Ahmed, S, ‘Electrophoretic Deposition of Spherical and Rod Shaped Nanocrystals’ ECS Transactions 2009, 19, 209-219.
  2. O’Sullivan, C.; Gunning, R.; Barrett, C.; Singh, A.; Geaney, H.; Sanyal, A.; Ahmed, S.; Bala, T.; Ryan, K.M.  Facet Specific Gold Tip Growth on Semiconductor Nanorod Assemblies ECS Transactions 2009, 25, 17-29
  3.    Ryan, K. M.; Ahmed S.  : Vertical Aligned Nanorod Assembly by Electrophoretic Deposition from Organic Solvents: Towards Aligned Nanorod Solar Cells, in Next-Generation and Nano-Architectured Photovoltaics; Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Volume 1121E, Boston, MA, 2008; 1121-N15-05 (Edited)

 

PATENTS

  1. Ryan, K. M., Sanyal,      A., Bala, T. McGlouglin, T. Pitterina, A. Processing of Nanoparticles  US 8501432  Granted September 2013
  2. Ryan, K. M., Barrett, C. A. 2009.  Method and System for the Synthesis of Semiconductor Nanowires. Patent No: US 8,138,067. Date of Patent Mar 20, 2012.
  3. Ryan K. M. Morris, M. A, Holmes, J. D. and Lawton, WUS Patent Granted US 6699797 Method of Fabrication of low dielectric constant porous metal silicate films”   UCC and Intel Cooperation. 2004
  4. Winkler, H. Ryan, K. M. Pigments with Opal Structures, German Patent Granted, DE 102009 030 250 A1.

 

 

PATENT APPLICATIONS

  1. Ryan, K. M., Sanyal, A., Bala, T. McGlouglin, T. Pitterina, A. Nanorod ensembles via reverse phase transfer for biological applications. Ireland Patent filed 2009/0775; Patent filed as a US Patent, June 2010.
  1. Ryan, K. M. Singh, A. Barrett, C. A. Process and System for Fabrication and Surface Modification of Colloidal Carbon Spheres in Supercritical Media European Patent Application No. EP101919940.2, Filed Nov.10.