Just Accepted – McCarthy et al. – Electrochemical impedance correlation analysis for the estimation of Li-ion battery state of charge, state of health and internal temperature – Journal of Energy Storage, 2022, 50, 104608

Kieran McCarthy1, Hemtej Gullapalli2, Kevin M. Ryan1, Tadhg Kennedy1

aBernal Institute and Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Limerick, V94 T9PX Limerick, Ireland
bAnalog Devices, 125 Summer St., MA 02110, Boston, United States
E-mail address: Tadhg.kennedy@ul.ie (T. Kennedy).

Link to Paper:

a) Typical Nyquist plot of a Li-ion battery. b) Equivalent circuit model used to interpret impedance spectra.

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an effective characterization tool for a multitude of battery states including state of charge (SoC), state of health (SoH) and internal temperature (IT). The intrinsic relationship between equivalent circuit elements and components of an impedance spectra (frequency, real, imaginary and phase) could be exploited to estimate the battery state at a given point of time without the need of continuous historical tracking information. Identification and analysis of battery state sensitive impedance variables is paramount for the development of any impedance-based battery management system (BMS). In this paper, correlation analysis between equivalent circuit elements and impedance spectra of multiple commercial Li-ion polymer batteries at varying SoC, SoH and IT levels was performed to identify and quantify the degree of dependence. Curve fitting techniques were used to fit the measured Impedance spectra on to an equivalent circuit model (ECM) to extract the circuit elements. Pearson’s r correlation matrix was employed for quantifying the degree of correlation between each impedance variable and state parameter. Optimal impedance variables that demonstrated high dependence with SoC, SoH and IT are then proposed in this paper. Knowledge of this information is of high value to develop a direct impedance-based state estimation models for real time battery management systems.

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